Invasion of the Orb Men

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Certainly it was the sort of thing Alcibiades was infamous for: outrageous, impious, more than a little loony. But equally certainly it was just the sort of story that would be manufactured by his enemies to do him mischief. The fleet sailed. No more than it was gone, charges were brought in the matter of the statues against Alcibiades. Since this was a democracy, and Alcibiades was after all no more than a citizen now accused of a crime, a state ship was sent after the fleet to bring Alcibiades back.

The ship caught up with the fleet and Alcibiades was duly arrested, accused of sacrilege. It was an Athenian madness to gamble on such an expedition and then arrest the man who had conceived it. But it was plain bad policing to let the man get away on the return to Athens. As the state ship rounded the Peloponnese, Alcibiades gave his captors the slip, dove over the side and swam to shore.

Whereupon he went directly to Sparta and proceeded to tell the Spartans every detail of the expedition. Lamachus was killed in the fighting, leaving Nicias. Nicias was a lousy general - he procrastinated and hesitated, and his forces died off slowly. Opportunities presented themselves and he managed to fumble each of them. The army grew demoralized, for everyone understood that the key was a rapid victory.

Of course, it didn't help that the chief architect of the plan had gone over to the enemy and its chief opponent was now in command. Nicias presented situation as hopeless, expecting that the Athenian assembly, when it heard how poorly the expedition was proceeding, would order him to come home.

Instead, Athens sent him 15, more men, under Demosthenes, creating thereby the largest army ever assembled in Greece. Demosthenes was a dynamic general and tried an immediate offensive. But Syracuse was well defended and the attack failed. This attack was probably their best hope. When it failed, all the commanders began thinking of ways to withdraw the army safely. The one thing that the expedition had to do was to keep the fleet safe, for those ships were their only way home again. The one thing it had to avoid at all costs was the destruction of the fleet. Of course Nicias failed. Even as the commanders at last recognized the hopelessness of ever winning Syracuse, even as they had given the orders to sail, even indeed the very night before they were to depart, Nicias hesitated.

The Athenians were caught by surprise, the fleet was bottled up in the harbor and destroyed by fire ships. There was now no way home. The only alternative, and a desperate one it was, was to try to cross the interior of Sicily and reach a port friendly to Athens, where some ships might be had. The army was already suffering from diseases contracted in the swamps outside Syracuse. They now suffered from lack of supplies, particularly lack of water, as they crossed the arid interior of Sicily.

And they suffered further because the Sicilians were dogging their every step, cutting down stragglers and harassing the lines. At the last, the army was almost without water and was dying on its feet. When scouts reported a river ahead, the army dissolved into a mob and ran for it. The Syracusans were waiting on the opposite bank. As the Athenians tumbled into the small river, the Syracusans attacked.

The result was slaughter. Much of the army perished at the river, and most of the rest were captured. Those captured were enslaved. Only a handful ever made it back to Athens. So ended the expedition to Sicily. Never had a single Greek city mobilized such an army, and never had a single Greek city suffered such terrible losses. Such were the auxiliaries brought together on either side, all of which had by this time joined, neither party experiencing any subsequent accession.

It was no wonder, therefore, if the Syracusans and their allies thought that it would win them great glory if they could follow up their recent victory in the sea-fight by the capture of the whole Athenian armada, without letting it escape either by sea or by land. They began at once to close up the Great Harbour by means of boats, merchant vessels, and galleys moored broadside across its mouth, which is nearly a mile wide, and made all their other arrangements for the event of the Athenians again venturing to fight at sea.

There was, in fact, nothing little either in their plans or their ideas. The Athenians, seeing them closing up the harbour and informed of their further designs, called a council of war. The generals and colonels assembled and discussed the difficulties of the situation; the point which pressed most being that they no longer had provisions for immediate use having sent on to Catana to tell them not to send any, in the belief that they were going away , and that they would not have any in future unless they could command the sea.

They therefore determined to evacuate their upper lines, to enclose with a cross wall and garrison a small space close to the ships, only just sufficient to hold their stores and sick, and manning all the ships, seaworthy or not, with every man that could be spared from the rest of their land forces, to fight it out at sea, and, if victorious, to go to Catana, if not, to burn their vessels, form in close order, and retreat by land for the nearest friendly place they could reach, Hellenic or barbarian.

This was no sooner settled than carried into effect; they descended gradually from the upper lines and manned all their vessels, compelling all to go on board who were of age to be in any way of use. They thus succeeded in manning about one hundred and ten ships in all, on board of which they embarked a number of archers and darters taken from the Acarnanians and from the other foreigners, making all other provisions allowed by the nature of their plan and by the necessities which imposed it. All was now nearly ready, and Nicias, seeing the soldiery disheartened by their unprecedented and decided defeat at sea, and by reason of the scarcity of provisions eager to fight it out as soon as possible, called them all together, and first addressed them, speaking as follows:.

You must not lose heart, or be like men without any experience, who fail in a first essay and ever afterwards fearfully forebode a future as disastrous. But let the Athenians among you who have already had experience of many wars, and the allies who have joined us in so many expeditions, remember the surprises of war, and with the hope that fortune will not be always against us, prepare to fight again in a manner worthy of the number which you see yourselves to be. A number of archers and darters will go on board, and a multitude that we should not have employed in an action in the open sea, where our science would be crippled by the weight of the vessels; but in the present land-fight that we are forced to make from shipboard all this will be useful.

We have also discovered the changes in construction that we must make to meet theirs; and against the thickness of their cheeks, which did us the greatest mischief, we have provided grappling-irons, which will prevent an assailant backing water after charging, if the soldiers on deck here do their duty; since we are absolutely compelled to fight a land battle from the fleet, and it seems to be our interest neither to back water ourselves, nor to let the enemy do so, especially as the shore, except so much of it as may be held by our troops, is hostile ground.

I say this more for the heavy infantry than for the seamen, as it is more the business of the men on deck; and our land forces are even now on the whole the strongest. The sailors I advise, and at the same time implore, not to be too much daunted by their misfortunes, now that we have our decks better armed and greater number of vessels.

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Bear in mind how well worth preserving is the pleasure felt by those of you who through your knowledge of our language and imitation of our manners were always considered Athenians, even though not so in reality, and as such were honoured throughout Hellas, and had your full share of the advantages of our empire, and more than your share in the respect of our subjects and in protection from ill treatment. You, therefore, with whom alone we freely share our empire, we now justly require not to betray that empire in its extremity, and in scorn of Corinthians, whom you have often conquered, and of Siceliots, none of whom so much as presumed to stand against us when our navy was in its prime, we ask you to repel them, and to show that even in sickness and disaster your skill is more than a match for the fortune and vigour of any other.

Here you will fall at once into the hands of the Syracusans- I need not remind you of the intentions with which you attacked them- and your countrymen at home will fall into those of the Lacedaemonians. Since the fate of both thus hangs upon this single battle, now, if ever, stand firm, and remember, each and all, that you who are now going on board are the army and navy of the Athenians, and all that is left of the state and the great name of Athens, in whose defence if any man has any advantage in skill or courage, now is the time for him to show it, and thus serve himself and save all.

After this address Nicias at once gave orders to man the ships. Meanwhile Gylippus and the Syracusans could perceive by the preparations which they saw going on that the Athenians meant to fight at sea. They had also notice of the grappling-irons, against which they specially provided by stretching hides over the prows and much of the upper part of their vessels, in order that the irons when thrown might slip off without taking hold. All being now ready, the generals and Gylippus addressed them in the following terms:.

The Athenians came to this country first to effect the conquest of Sicily, and after that, if successful, of Peloponnese and the rest of Hellas, possessing already the greatest empire yet known, of present or former times, among the Hellenes. Here for the first time they found in you men who faced their navy which made them masters everywhere; you have already defeated them in the previous sea-fights, and will in all likelihood defeat them again now. When men are once checked in what they consider their special excellence, their whole opinion of themselves suffers more than if they had not at first believed in their superiority, the unexpected shock to their pride causing them to give way more than their real strength warrants; and this is probably now the case with the Athenians.

The original estimate of ourselves which gave us courage in the days of our unskilfulness has been strengthened, while the conviction superadded to it that we must be the best seamen of the time, if we have conquered the best, has given a double measure of hope to every man among us; and, for the most part, where there is the greatest hope, there is also the greatest ardour for action. The means to combat us which they have tried to find in copying our armament are familiar to our warfare, and will be met by proper provisions; while they will never be able to have a number of heavy infantry on their decks, contrary to their custom, and a number of darters born landsmen, one may say, Acarnanians and others, embarked afloat, who will not know how to discharge their weapons when they have to keep still , without hampering their vessels and falling all into confusion among themselves through fighting not according to their own tactics.

For they will gain nothing by the number of their ships- I say this to those of you who may be alarmed by having to fight against odds- as a quantity of ships in a confined space will only be slower in executing the movements required, and most exposed to injury from our means of offence. Indeed, if you would know the plain truth, as we are credibly informed, the excess of their sufferings and the necessities of their present distress have made them desperate; they have no confidence in their force, but wish to try their fortune in the only way they can, and either to force their passage and sail out, or after this to retreat by land, it being impossible for them to be worse off than they are.

That enemies they are and mortal enemies you all know, since they came here to enslave our country, and if successful had in reserve for our men all that is most dreadful, and for our children and wives all that is most dishonourable, and for the whole city the name which conveys the greatest reproach. None should therefore relent or think it gain if they go away without further danger to us. This they will do just the same, even if they get the victory; while if we succeed, as we may expect, in chastising them, and in handing down to all Sicily her ancient freedom strengthened and confirmed, we shall have achieved no mean triumph.

Ultraman Orb- Orbs true Power

And the rarest dangers are those in which failure brings little loss and success the greatest advantage. After the above address to the soldiers on their side, the Syracusan generals and Gylippus now perceived that the Athenians were manning their ships, and immediately proceeded to man their own also. Having thus admonished them, not, he felt, as he would, but as he could, Nicias withdrew and led the troops to the sea, and ranged them in as long a line as he was able, in order to aid as far as possible in sustaining the courage of the men afloat; while Demosthenes, Menander, and Euthydemus, who took the command on board, put out from their own camp and sailed straight to the barrier across the mouth of the harbour and to the passage left open, to try to force their way out.

The Syracusans and their allies had already put out with about the same number of ships as before, a part of which kept guard at the outlet, and the remainder all round the rest of the harbour, in order to attack the Athenians on all sides at once; while the land forces held themselves in readiness at the points at which the vessels might put into the shore. The Syracusan fleet was commanded by Sicanus and Agatharchus, who had each a wing of the whole force, with Pythen and the Corinthians in the centre. When the rest of the Athenians came up to the barrier, with the first shock of their charge they overpowered the ships stationed there, and tried to undo the fastenings; after this, as the Syracusans and allies bore down upon them from all quarters, the action spread from the barrier over the whole harbour, and was more obstinately disputed than any of the preceding ones.

On either side the rowers showed great zeal in bringing up their vessels at the boatswains' orders, and the helmsmen great skill in manoeuvring, and great emulation one with another; while the ships once alongside, the soldiers on board did their best not to let the service on deck be outdone by the others; in short, every man strove to prove himself the first in his particular department. And as many ships were engaged in a small compass for these were the largest fleets fighting in the narrowest space ever known, being together little short of two hundred , the regular attacks with the beak were few, there being no opportunity of backing water or of breaking the line; while the collisions caused by one ship chancing to run foul of another, either in flying from or attacking a third, were more frequent.

So long as a vessel was coming up to the charge the men on the decks rained darts and arrows and stones upon her; but once alongside, the heavy infantry tried to board each other's vessel, fighting hand to hand. In many quarters it happened, by reason of the narrow room, that a vessel was charging an enemy on one side and being charged herself on another, and that two or sometimes more ships had perforce got entangled round one, obliging the helmsmen to attend to defence here, offence there, not to one thing at once, but to many on all sides; while the huge din caused by the number of ships crashing together not only spread terror, but made the orders of the boatswains inaudible.

The boatswains on either side in the discharge of their duty and in the heat of the conflict shouted incessantly orders and appeals to their men; the Athenians they urged to force the passage out, and now if ever to show their mettle and lay hold of a safe return to their country; to the Syracusans and their allies they cried that it would be glorious to prevent the escape of the enemy, and, conquering, to exalt the countries that were theirs.

The generals, moreover, on either side, if they saw any in any part of the battle backing ashore without being forced to do so, called out to the captain by name and asked him- the Athenians, whether they were retreating because they thought the thrice hostile shore more their own than that sea which had cost them so much labour to win; the Syracusans, whether they were flying from the flying Athenians, whom they well knew to be eager to escape in whatever way they could.

Meanwhile the two armies on shore, while victory hung in the balance, were a prey to the most agonizing and conflicting emotions; the natives thirsting for more glory than they had already won, while the invaders feared to find themselves in even worse plight than before. The all of the Athenians being set upon their fleet, their fear for the event was like nothing they had ever felt; while their view of the struggle was necessarily as chequered as the battle itself.

Close to the scene of action and not all looking at the same point at once, some saw their friends victorious and took courage and fell to calling upon heaven not to deprive them of salvation, while others who had their eyes turned upon the losers, wailed and cried aloud, and, although spectators, were more overcome than the actual combatants. Others, again, were gazing at some spot where the battle was evenly disputed; as the strife was protracted without decision, their swaying bodies reflected the agitation of their minds, and they suffered the worst agony of all, ever just within reach of safety or just on the point of destruction.

In short, in that one Athenian army as long as the sea-fight remained doubtful there was every sound to be heard at once, shrieks, cheers, "We win," "We lose," and all the other manifold exclamations that a great host would necessarily utter in great peril; and with the men in the fleet it was nearly the same; until at last the Syracusans and their allies, after the battle had lasted a long while, put the Athenians to flight, and with much shouting and cheering chased them in open rout to the shore.

The naval force, one one way, one another, as many as were not taken afloat now ran ashore and rushed from on board their ships to their camp; while the army, no more divided, but carried away by one impulse, all with shrieks and groans deplored the event, and ran down, some to help the ships, others to guard what was left of their wall, while the remaining and most numerous part already began to consider how they should save themselves.

Indeed, the panic of the present moment had never been surpassed. They now suffered very nearly what they had inflicted at Pylos; as then the Lacedaemonians with the loss of their fleet lost also the men who had crossed over to the island, so now the Athenians had no hope of escaping by land, without the help of some extraordinary accident.

The sea-fight having been a severe one, and many ships and lives having been lost on both sides, the victorious Syracusans and their allies now picked up their wrecks and dead, and sailed off to the city and set up a trophy.

Normandy in the 10th Century

The Athenians, overwhelmed by their misfortune, never even thought. Demosthenes, however, went to Nicias and gave it as his opinion that they should man the ships they had left and make another effort to force their passage out next morning; saying that they had still left more ships fit for service than the enemy, the Athenians having about sixty remaining as against less than fifty of their opponents. Nicias was quite of his mind; but when they wished to man the vessels, the sailors refused to go on board, being so utterly overcome by their defeat as no longer to believe in the possibility of success.

Accordingly they all now made up their minds to retreat by land. Meanwhile the Syracusan Hermocrates- suspecting their intention, and impressed by the danger of allowing a force of that magnitude to retire by land, establish itself in some other part of Sicily, and from thence renew the war- went and stated his views to the authorities, and pointed out to them that they ought not to let the enemy get away by night, but that all the Syracusans and their allies should at once march out and block up the roads and seize and guard the passes.

The authorities were entirely of his opinion, and thought that it ought to be done, but on the other hand felt sure that the people, who had given themselves over to rejoicing, and were taking their ease after a great battle at sea, would not be easily brought to obey; besides, they were celebrating a festival, having on that day a sacrifice to Heracles, and most of them in their rapture at the victory had fallen to drinking at the festival, and would probably consent to anything sooner than to take up their arms and march out at that moment.

For these reasons the thing appeared impracticable to the magistrates; and Hermocrates, finding himself unable to do anything further with them, had now recourse to the following stratagem of his own. What he feared was that the Athenians might quietly get the start of them by passing the most difficult places during the night; and he therefore sent, as soon as it was dusk, some friends of his own to the camp with some horsemen who rode up within earshot and called out to some of the men, as though they were well-wishers of the Athenians, and told them to tell Nicias who had in fact some correspondents who informed him of what went on inside the town not to lead off the army by night as the Syracusans were guarding the roads, but to make his preparations at his leisure and to retreat by day.

After saying this they departed; and their hearers informed the Athenian generals, who put off going for that night on the strength of this message, not doubting its sincerity. Since after all they had not set out at once, they now determined to stay also the following day to give time to the soldiers to pack up as well as they could the most useful articles, and, leaving everything else behind, to start only with what was strictly necessary for their personal subsistence.

Meanwhile the Syracusans and Gylippus marched out and blocked up the roads through the country by which the Athenians were likely to pass, and kept guard at the fords of the streams and rivers, posting themselves so as to receive them and stop the army where they thought best; while their fleet sailed up to the beach and towed off the ships of the Athenians. Some few were burned by the Athenians themselves as they had intended; the rest the Syracusans lashed on to their own at their leisure as they had been thrown up on shore, without any one trying to stop them, and conveyed to the town.

After this, Nicias and Demosthenes now thinking that enough had been done in the way of preparation, the removal of the army took place upon the second day after the sea-fight. It was a lamentable scene, not merely from the single circumstance that they were retreating after having lost all their ships, their great hopes gone, and themselves and the state in peril; but also in leaving the camp there were things most grievous for every eye and heart to contemplate. The dead lay unburied, and each man as he recognized a friend among them shuddered with grief and horror; while the living whom they were leaving behind, wounded or sick, were to the living far more shocking than the dead, and more to be pitied than those who had perished.

These fell to entreating and bewailing until their friends knew not what to do, begging them to take them and loudly calling to each individual comrade or relative whom they could see, hanging upon the necks of their tent-fellows in the act of departure, and following as far as they could, and, when their bodily strength failed them, calling again and again upon heaven and shrieking aloud as they were left behind. So that the whole army being filled with tears and distracted after this fashion found it not easy to go, even from an enemy's land, where they had already suffered evils too great for tears and in the unknown future before them feared to suffer more.

Dejection and self-condemnation were also rife among them. Indeed they could only be compared to a starved-out town, and that no small one, escaping; the whole multitude upon the march being not less than forty thousand men. All carried anything they could which might be of use, and the heavy infantry and troopers, contrary to their wont, while under arms carried their own victuals, in some cases for want of servants, in others through not trusting them; as they had long been deserting and now did so in greater numbers than ever.

Yet even thus they did not carry enough, as there was no longer food in the camp. Moreover their disgrace generally, and the universality of their sufferings, however to a certain extent alleviated by being borne in company, were still felt at the moment a heavy burden, especially when they contrasted the splendour and glory of their setting out with the humiliation in which it had ended.

For this was by far the greatest reverse that ever befell an Hellenic army. They had come to enslave others, and were departing in fear of being enslaved themselves: they had sailed out with prayer and paeans, and now started to go back with omens directly contrary; travelling by land instead of by sea, and trusting not in their fleet but in their heavy infantry. Nevertheless the greatness of the danger still impending made all this appear tolerable. Nicias seeing the army dejected and greatly altered, passed along the ranks and encouraged and comforted them as far as was possible under the circumstances, raising his voice still higher and higher as he went from one company to another in his earnestness, and in his anxiety that the benefit of his words might reach as many as possible:.

I myself who am not superior to any of you in strength- indeed you see how I am in my sickness- and who in the gifts of fortune am, I think, whether in private life or otherwise, the equal of any, am now exposed to the same danger as the meanest among you; and yet my life has been one of much devotion toward the gods, and of much justice and without offence toward men. I have, therefore, still a strong hope for the future, and our misfortunes do not terrify me as much as they might.

Indeed we may hope that they will be lightened: our enemies have had good fortune enough; and if any of the gods was offended at our expedition, we have been already amply punished. Others before us have attacked their neighbours and have done what men will do without suffering more than they could bear; and we may now justly expect to find the gods more kind, for we have become fitter objects for their pity than their jealousy. And then look at yourselves, mark the numbers and efficiency of the heavy infantry marching in your ranks, and do not give way too much to despondency, but reflect that you are yourselves at once a city wherever you sit down, and that there is no other in Sicily that could easily resist your attack, or expel you when once established.

The safety and order of the march is for yourselves to look to; the one thought of each man being that the spot on which he may be forced to fight must be conquered and held as his country and stronghold. Meanwhile we shall hasten on our way night and day alike, as our provisions are scanty; and if we can reach some friendly place of the Sicels, whom fear of the Syracusans still keeps true to us, you may forthwith consider yourselves safe. A message has been sent on to them with directions to meet us with supplies of food.

To sum up, be convinced, soldiers, that you must be brave, as there is no place near for your cowardice to take refuge in, and that if you now escape from the enemy, you may all see again what your hearts desire, while those of you who are Athenians will raise up again the great power of the state, fallen though it be. Men make the city and not walls or ships without men in them.

As he made this address, Nicias went along the ranks, and brought back to their place any of the troops that he saw straggling out of the line; while Demosthenes did as much for his part of the army, addressing them in words very similar. The army marched in a hollow square, the division under Nicias leading, and that of Demosthenes following, the heavy infantry being outside and the baggage-carriers and the bulk of the army in the middle. When they arrived at the ford of the river Anapus there they found drawn up a body of the Syracusans and allies, and routing these, made good their passage and pushed on, harassed by the charges of the Syracusan horse and by the missiles of their light troops.

On that day they advanced about four miles and a half, halting for the night upon a certain hill. On the next they started early and got on about two miles further, and descended into a place in the plain and there encamped, in order to procure some eatables from the houses, as the place was inhabited, and to carry on with them water from thence, as for many furlongs in front, in the direction in which they were going, it was not plentiful. The Syracusans meanwhile went on and fortified the pass in front, where there was a steep hill with a rocky ravine on each side of it, called the Acraean cliff.

The next day the Athenians advancing found themselves impeded by the missiles and charges of the horse and darters, both very numerous, of the Syracusans and allies; and after fighting for a long while, at length retired to the same camp, where they had no longer provisions as before, it being impossible to leave their position by reason of the cavalry.

Early next morning they started afresh and forced their way to the hill, which had been fortified, where they found before them the enemy's infantry drawn up many shields deep to defend the fortification, the pass being narrow. The Athenians assaulted the work, but were greeted by a storm of missiles from the hill, which told with the greater effect through its being a steep one, and unable to force the passage, retreated again and rested. Meanwhile occurred some claps of thunder and rain, as often happens towards autumn, which still further disheartened the Athenians, who thought all these things to be omens of their approaching ruin.

While they were resting, Gylippus and the Syracusans sent a part of their army to throw up works in their rear on the way by which they had advanced; however, the Athenians immediately sent some of their men and prevented them; after which they retreated more towards the plain and halted for the night. When they advanced the next day the Syracusans surrounded and attacked them on every side, and disabled many of them, falling back if the Athenians advanced and coming on if they retired, and in particular assaulting their rear, in the hope of routing them in detail, and thus striking a panic into the whole army.

For a long while the Athenians persevered in this fashion, but after advancing for four or five furlongs halted to rest in the plain, the Syracusans also withdrawing to their own camp. During the night Nicias and Demosthenes, seeing the wretched condition of their troops, now in want of every kind of necessary, and numbers of them disabled in the numerous attacks of the enemy, determined to light as many fires as possible, and to lead off the army, no longer by the same route as they had intended, but towards the sea in the opposite direction to that guarded by the Syracusans.

The whole of this route was leading the army not to Catana but to the other side of Sicily, towards Camarina, Gela, and the other Hellenic and barbarian towns in that quarter. They accordingly lit a number of fires and set out by night.

The Delian League

Now all armies, and the greatest most of all, are liable to fears and alarms, especially when they are marching by night through an enemy's country and with the enemy near; and the Athenians falling into one of these panics, the leading division, that of Nicias, kept together and got on a good way in front, while that of Demosthenes, comprising rather more than half the army, got separated and marched on in some disorder.

By morning, however, they reached the sea, and getting into the Helorine road, pushed on in order to reach the river Cacyparis, and to follow the stream up through the interior, where they hoped to be met by the Sicels whom they had sent for. Arrived at the river, they found there also a Syracusan party engaged in barring the passage of the ford with a wall and a palisade, and forcing this guard, crossed the river and went on to another called the Erineus, according to the advice of their guides.

Meanwhile, when day came and the Syracusans and allies found that the Athenians were gone, most of them accused Gylippus of having let them escape on purpose, and hastily pursuing by the road which they had no difficulty in finding that they had taken, overtook them about dinner-time. They first came up with the troops under Demosthenes, who were behind and marching somewhat slowly and in disorder, owing to the night panic above referred to, and at once attacked and engaged them, the Syracusan horse surrounding them with more ease now that they were separated from the rest and hemming them in on one spot.

The division of Nicias was five or six miles on in front, as he led them more rapidly, thinking that under the circumstances their safety lay not in staying and fighting, unless obliged, but in retreating as fast as possible, and only fighting when forced to do so. On the other hand, Demosthenes was, generally speaking, harassed more incessantly, as his post in the rear left him the first exposed to the attacks of the enemy; and now, finding that the Syracusans were in pursuit, he omitted to push on, in order to form his men for battle, and so lingered until he was surrounded by his pursuers and himself and the Athenians with him placed in the most distressing position, being huddled into an enclosure with a wall all round it, a road on this side and on that, and olive-trees in great number, where missiles were showered in upon them from every quarter.

This mode of attack the Syracusans had with good reason adopted in preference to fighting at close quarters, as to risk a struggle with desperate men was now more for the advantage of the Athenians than for their own; besides, their success had now become so certain that they began to spare themselves a little in order not to be cut off in the moment of victory, thinking too that, as it was, they would be able in this way to subdue and capture the enemy.

In fact, after plying the Athenians and allies all day long from every side with missiles, they at length saw that they were worn out with their wounds and other sufferings; and Gylippus and the Syracusans and their allies made a proclamation, offering their liberty to any of the islanders who chose to come over to them; and some few cities went over.

Afterwards a capitulation was agreed upon for all the rest with Demosthenes, to lay down their arms on condition that no one was to be put to death either by violence or imprisonment or want of the necessaries of life.

invasion of the orb men Manual

Upon this they surrendered to the number of six thousand in all, laying down all the money in their possession, which filled the hollows of four shields, and were immediately conveyed by the Syracusans to the town. Meanwhile Nicias with his division arrived that day at the river Erineus, crossed over, and posted his army upon some high ground upon the other side. The next day the Syracusans overtook him and told him that the troops under Demosthenes had surrendered, and invited him to follow their example. Incredulous of the fact, Nicias asked for a truce to send a horseman to see, and upon the return of the messenger with the tidings that they had surrendered, sent a herald to Gylippus and the Syracusans, saying that he was ready to agree with them on behalf of the Athenians to repay whatever money the Syracusans had spent upon the war if they would let his army go; and offered until the money was paid to give Athenians as hostages, one for every talent.

The Syracusans and Gylippus rejected this proposition, and attacked this division as they had the other, standing all round and plying them with missiles until the evening. Food and necessaries were as miserably wanting to the troops of Nicias as they had been to their comrades; nevertheless they watched for the quiet of the night to resume their march.

But as they were taking up their arms the Syracusans perceived it and raised their paean, upon which the Athenians, finding that they were discovered, laid them down again, except about three hundred men who forced their way through the guards and went on during the night as they were able. As soon as it was day Nicias put his army in motion, pressed, as before, by the Syracusans and their allies, pelted from every side by their missiles, and struck down by their javelins.

The Athenians pushed on for the Assinarus, impelled by the attacks made upon them from every side by a numerous cavalry and the swarm of other arms, fancying that they should breathe more freely if once across the river, and driven on also by their exhaustion and craving for water. Once there they rushed in, and all order was at an end, each man wanting to cross first, and the attacks of the enemy making it difficult to cross at all; forced to huddle together, they fell against and trod down one another, some dying immediately upon the javelins, others getting entangled together and stumbling over the articles of baggage, without being able to rise again.

Meanwhile the opposite bank, which was steep, was lined by the Syracusans, who showered missiles down upon the Athenians, most of them drinking greedily and heaped together in disorder in the hollow bed of the river. The Peloponnesians also came down and butchered them, especially those in the water, which was thus immediately spoiled, but which they went on drinking just the same, mud and all, bloody as it was, most even fighting to have it.

At last, when many dead now lay piled one upon another in the stream, and part of the army had been destroyed at the river, and the few that escaped from thence cut off by the cavalry, Nicias surrendered himself to Gylippus, whom he trusted more than he did the Syracusans, and told him and the Lacedaemonians to do what they liked with him, but to stop the slaughter of the soldiers.

Gylippus, after this, immediately gave orders to make prisoners; upon which the rest were brought together alive, except a large number secreted by the soldiery, and a party was sent in pursuit of the three hundred who had got through the guard during the night, and who were now taken with the rest. The number of the enemy collected as public property was not considerable; but that secreted was very large, and all Sicily was filled with them, no convention having been made in their case as for those taken with Demosthenes. Besides this, a large portion were killed outright, the carnage being very great, and not exceeded by any in this Sicilian war.

In the numerous other encounters upon the march, not a few also had fallen. Nevertheless many escaped, some at the moment, others served as slaves, and then ran away subsequently. These found refuge at Catana. The Syracusans and their allies now mustered and took up the spoils and as many prisoners as they could, and went back to the city. The rest of their Athenian and allied captives were deposited in the quarries, this seeming the safest way of keeping them; but Nicias and Demosthenes were butchered, against the will of Gylippus, who thought that it would be the crown of his triumph if he could take the enemy's generals to Lacedaemon.

One of them, as it happened, Demosthenes, was one of her greatest enemies, on account of the affair of the island and of Pylos; while the other, Nicias, was for the same reasons one of her greatest friends, owing to his exertions to procure the release of the prisoners by persuading the Athenians to make peace. For these reasons the Lacedaemonians felt kindly towards him; and it was in this that Nicias himself mainly confided when he surrendered to Gylippus.

But some of the Syracusans who had been in correspondence with him were afraid, it was said, of his being put to the torture and troubling their success by his revelations; others, especially the Corinthians, of his escaping, as he was wealthy, by means of bribes, and living to do them further mischief; and these persuaded the allies and put him to death. This or the like was the cause of the death of a man who, of all the Hellenes in my time, least deserved such a fate, seeing that the whole course of his life had been regulated with strict attention to virtue.

The prisoners in the quarries were at first hardly treated by the Syracusans. Crowded in a narrow hole, without any roof to cover them, the heat of the sun and the stifling closeness of the air tormented them during the day, and then the nights, which came on autumnal and chilly, made them ill by the violence of the change; besides, as they had to do everything in the same place for want of room, and the bodies of those who died of their wounds or from the variation in the temperature, or from similar causes, were left heaped together one upon another, intolerable stenches arose; while hunger and thirst never ceased to afflict them, each man during eight months having only half a pint of water and a pint of corn given him daily.

In short, no single suffering to be apprehended by men thrust into such a place was spared them. For some seventy days they thus lived all together, after which all, except the Athenians and any Siceliots or Italiots who had joined in the expedition, were sold. The total number of prisoners taken it would be difficult to state exactly, but it could not have been less than seven thousand. This was the greatest Hellenic achievement of any in thig war, or, in my opinion, in Hellenic history; at once most glorious to the victors, and most calamitous to the conquered.

They were beaten at all points and altogether; all that they suffered was great; they were destroyed, as the saying is, with a total destruction, their fleet, their army, everything was destroyed, and few out of many returned home. Such were the events in Sicily. The expedition against Syracuse consumed nearly all of Athens' resources. She had lost a fleet and an army.


The government of Athens had made enormous demands on its citizens and on its empire. Athens had shot her best bolt and had failed. The issue now was not how to win but how to avoid defeat. Still, Athens was not defeated. She still had great resources among her allies and much wealth still flowed into the Piraeus. It was a measure of her resources to note that Athens now raised yet another fleet and was able to continue the war. Three serious problems confronted Athens now.

The most serious was that she still had not the means of defeating her enemies, other than holding on and hoping for a settlement. She also now lacked a great leader such as Pericles or even Alcibiades. And, finally, politics kept interfering with the war--the ancient conflict between the aristocrats and the democrats. In , as a result of the defeat in Sicily, the oligarchs were able to seize power. They conduct the war for a few years, but they prove incompetent.

Athens suffered more losses, and the oligarchs were widely suspected of colluding with Sparta for an end to the war that would be detrimental to Athens. By , sentiment had again swung around in favor of the democrats. The last part of the war was a grim time for Athens. The oligarchs proved themselves unable to bring the war to a conclusion, for Sparta was now demanding virtual surrender. Eventually, the democratic party again threw the oligarchs out of power and again tried to prosecute the war vigorously. They went so far as to forgive and recall Alcibiades. He gave Athens four years of victories before he again fell from favor.

The victories brought no permanent results, though, and served merely to prolong the end. The end came finally in , at the Aegospotami River. The Athenian fleet was operating in the northern Aegean, with a combined Corinthian and Spartan navy now financed by Persian gold in pursuit.

The Athenians put in at the Aegospotami River to gather fresh water and supplies. Such an expedition is always tricky. The crews have to put to shore, leaving the fleet under-manned. It was imperative at such a time to know the location of the enemy and to keep a sharp eye for ships. This was not done. The Athenians were surprised by the Corinthians and Spartans, and the fleet was almost completely destroyed.

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  4. Athens lost the better part of her ships, while the Spartan ships survived the battle in good shape. The Athenian treasury was empty. There could be no heroic recovery as there had been after the disaster in Sicily. And, without the fleet, the strategy of Pericles failed at last. A Spartan army invaded Attica in After a short resistance, Athens was forced to surrender. The terms of the peace were harsh. Sparta demanded the destruction of the walls around the Piraeus, as well as the Long Walls running from Athens to the port.

    The citizens of Athens themselves were forced to pull down their own handiwork. The Athenian war fleet was reduced to twelve ships--barely enough to protect her shipping. Athens was also forced to become a junior ally of Sparta, and so lost the right to form her own foreign policy. Sparta of course blamed much of the behavior of Athens on her form of government. The exiled aristocrats were restored to power, and the entire government was placed in the hands of a committe of thirty. These instituted reprisals against their enemies so bloody about 1, political murders in the space of eight months that they earned for themselves the name of the Thirty Tyrants.

    They in fact behaved so outrageously that a milder demoracy was restored in , but Athens was still subject to Sparta. The war was a catastrophe for Athens. She lost her empire so thoroughly that she never regained it. The city continued to enjoy a level of wealth, and as a center of culture she still counted among the leading towns of Hellas.

    But her political influence was never again decisive. Sparta won the war, but scarcely knew what to do with the fruits of victory. Her attempts to lead the Greeks were heavy-handed and soon called forth new champions of liberty. Feedback Show. Deep Space Nine is often seen as that series about the war. Squadrons of insect-like Dominion ships pouring out of the wormhole was the harbinger of the greatness and danger to come, and to a unique approach to Star Trek storytelling.

    The sixth season of DS9 was to begin not only with an unprecedented six-episode arc, but also with the scattering of our heroes and the loss of the space station whose very name is in the title of the show. Chapters Spaceship Battles! When Star Trek: The Next Generation premiered, one sign that times had changed for the Federation was the presence of a Klingon officer on the bridge of the Enterprise. The role of Worf was not intended to be as integral as it became. And certainly, in those early episodes of TNG, no one would have guessed that this would be the character that would log the most hours in the franchise, spanning two series for a combined 11 seasons plus four films.

    Michael talks to us about how his transition to Deep Space Nine came about, the differences between his character on TNG and DS9, what opportunities life on the Station provided, working with Terry Ferrell, what it was like to say goodbye to Worf, and more. Although Quark got the headline role, his brother Rom and nephew Nog made perhaps the biggest strides. Enterprise gets much praise for its unique three-episode storytelling style that defined the fourth season. Send us your feedback!

    Support the Network! Become a Trek. Join us as we discuss fan ratings of DS9 episodes on IMDb, find out how one listener gained a new appreciation for The Circle Trilogy, imagine cherry-picking episodes from our back catalog, and watch Dr. Bashir become an instant superman. We also debate the Federation decision to walk away rather than help the Bajorans, and we check in on Admiral Chakotay.

    This time around we go behind the lines to explore the changing nature of character relationships in the face of conflict. We discuss how the show established a new feel for the series, how tragedy can fuel xenophobia, the evolving relationships between our main characters, whether a legend is more important than the truth, and much more. When you look back at the whole of Deep Space Nine, the first season feels a bit out-of-place.

    Yet there are plenty of seeds being planted in these early adventures, and there are even a few moments of sheer brilliance. This time around we delve into family with the episode that focuses on… well… sons and daughters. We discuss the tension between Worf and Alexander, how Worf struggles to be a father to a son who feels abandoned, and how Martok steps in to mentor them both.

    In this episode of The Orb, hosts Christopher Jones and Matthew Rushing step out of their usual world of serious discussion and into the Bosom Buddies reality, where Quark is a woman and Doctor Bashir performs gender-altering operations in the name of Ferengi politics. Was there merit to the original idea? What happened on the road from paper to screen that made this episode go so wrong? And which world leader does Grand Nagus Brunt remind us of? Grab your Slug-o-Cola and get set to gaze into another side of The Orb. But that this child would become a driving force in the stories of so many characters is.

    Through just nine appearances on DS9, Tora Ziyal changed the course of life for not only her father but also Kira, Garak, and others.

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    • The Orb: A Star Trek Deep Space Nine Podcast.

    The passing of Leonard Nimoy marks a shift in Star Trek universe. Perhaps no character from the franchise is better known that Spock. And while this endearing Vulcan never graced the corridors of Terok Nor, his influence—and that of the man who played him—is never far away. In this episode of The Orb hosts Christopher Jones and Matthew Rushing take a moment to remember Nimoy, how his interpretation of Spock informed the writing and performances of characters in orbit of Bajor all those years later, and even imagine some scenarios in which Leonard could have made a cameo on Deep Space Nine in a way that would have felt completely natural.

    But, in fact, the Dominion War didn't really begin until the end of the fifth season. Join us as we set Jake, Kasidy, and Ezri off on a post-finale adventure, ponder the fate of the Female Changeling, and explore possible medical uses for Founder biology—and the ethical quandaries it would bring with it. We also debate whether the Borg would have made a good addition to DS9, learn why Spock would have said all roads lead to Dukat, and much more.

    The finale of DS9 ended with the crew becoming scattered, Sisko in the Celestial Temple, and a feeling of complete and utter change. But what if the plan had been for eight seasons? What if the writers had 26 more episodes to continue the story they had begun?

    In this episode of The Orb hosts Christopher Jones and Matthew Rushing kick off a new series of episodes that will take you through the Season Six opener. We begin with the finale of Season Five, "Call to Arms," an episode that is not a cliffhanger in the traditional Star Trek sense but certainly leaves fans on the edge of their seats. One of the most fascinating incidents in American history is the alleged crash of a flying saucer near Roswell, New Mexico, in The supposed cover-up of the event, examination of aliens, and storage of the actual craft has become a thing of legend.

    What if it came with the added twist of a Star Trek connection? In one of the more clever tie-ins to real-world history, Deep Space Nine revealed that the aliens recovered from the Roswell crash were actually Ferengi. We pull out the baseball, root beer, darts and atom bombs for a fun romp through Hangar Wrapping up a series as complex as Deep Space Nine cannot be done with a traditional finale—or a single podcast.

    In the ninth part of our nine-part series, Chris and Matthew had way too much to say—and thus we bring you an additional 86 minutes of discussion as we look back on DS9. Wrapping up a series as complex as Deep Space Nine cannot be done with a traditional finale. To tackle a task so large, the writers needed a grand canvas upon which to paint the final strokes; but even eight episodes left so much still undone. The ninth and final installment—a double-thick bookend to the series opener "Emissary"—had a lot to live up to.

    Not only were there countless character threads and story arcs to conclude, but, when it came to final episodes, DS9 was still living in the shadow of "All Good Things…" Could the incredible writing team behind DS9 really pull it off? In this episode of The Orb hosts Christopher Jones and Matthew Rushing conclude our series of shows that take you through the entire nine-part, ten-hour Deep Space Nine finale with the very last piece of the story, "What You Leave Behind.

    And as the title of this episode of The Orb implies, we're not quite done yet. With too much to cover in just one hour, this is part one of our own two-part series finale. When the messages start piling up, it's time to gaze into the Orb of Mail. Join us as we expand upon the possible connection between Section 31 and Red Squad, the new Starfleet-designed Deep Space 9 station, Sisko mentoring Worf, the tag-team funnies of Worf and Dax, more thoughts on Keiko, Miles, and Kira, what an eighth season of DS9 night have looked like on television, and much more.

    It was a time when Odo was just beginning his life amongst solids, and as a result his sense of right and wrong were not well developed. When an actress becomes pregnant during the run of a television show, the writers often have trouble figuring out how to deal with it. You can try to hide it with camera work and props, as they did with Roxann Dawson, or you can send the character on a trip somewhere. There are many options, but finding one that truly fits with the show can be difficult. Luckily, science fiction opens up some unique doors, so when Nana Visitor became pregnant during DS9 the writers found away to write the pregnancy into the series by tying it to an existing storyline involving the O'Briens.

    The idea was praised by some, rejected by many. While it may have initially been viewed as a gimmick, hindsight shows us that not only was the decision to bring Worf to DS9 a good one, the station turned out to be just the environment the character needed to thrive. The TNG gang give us their perspective on seeing one of their own make DS9 home, how Worf meshed with the station's crew, his relationship with Jadzia and Ezri, where he ended up at the end of his two-series arc, and more. Through the first seven parts of DS9's final arc, the writers set up an unwieldy number of threads.

    Some were concluded along the way, but many remained. As a result, a bridge was needed between the bulk of the story and the events of the finale. That bridge came in the form of "The Dogs of War," an episode that spread out the pieces of the puzzle, locked some of them in place, and clarified where the remaining ones would go. Just before it all hit the fan, station Deep Space 9 played host to an auction that gave birth to a wild chase for a rare baseball card.

    It's a unique story within Star Trek that flips the usual format on its head by relegating the serious elements to the B-story whilst focusing primarily on what many might consider the frivilous—a vintage mint-condition Willie Mays rookie baseball card. In this episode of The Orb hosts Christopher Jones and Matthew Rushing bring you a commentary for "In the Cards" as they explore the dynamic between Jake and Nog, the rare glimpse of respect for Sisko shown by Kai Winn, the critical sixth-season story elements that are being set up in the background, and speculate on just what happens when you climb inside Dr.

    Elias Giger's cellular regeneration and entertainment chamber. The build up to the Dominion War was a slow one, with hints about the Founders and skirmishes with the Jem'Hadar setting the stage. But it wasn't a one-sided affair. Fearful of the Dominion, the intelligence services of the Cardassian Union and the Romulan Empire—the Obsidian Order and the Tal Shiar—teamed up for a preemptive strike against the Founders' homeworld. It was a bold plan to annihilate the Changelings before they could invade the Alpha Quadrant.

    What they didn't know was that they were walking into a trap. Cadet Training Squadron 47, as it is formally known, is an elite group at Starfleet Academy that receives special treatment, and thus is the object of desire for many Cadets. They played a pivotal role in Admiral Leyton's attempted coup on Earth in "Homefront" and "Paradise Lost," and they operated a Defiant-class starship behind enemy lines in "Valiant. In this episode of The Orb, hosts Christopher Jones and Matthew Rushing discuss Red Squad, its role in education at the Academy, its seductive nature, the dangers it could pose to the stability of Starfleet, and how it was used in storytelling.

    Cadet Training Squadron 47 Is Red Squad Good for Starfleet? Premature Responsibility The Seduction of Red Squad The Arrogance and Ignorance of Office A Great Idea for Storytelling Closing and Feedback With the end of the DS9 story looming and the Alpha Quadrant swirling with chaos, the writers gave us a chance to catch our breath with a surprisingly positioned bottle show. With so many threads left to tie up, it would have been a shame not to revisit the bromance between Bashir and O'Brien and the shadowy activities of Section 31 for a final time.

    Essentially a standalone tale, this journey into the mind of Sloan still connects well with the overall arc and provides a turn of events essential to the Federation's victory in the war. In this episode of The Orb hosts Christopher Jones and Matthew Rushing continue our series of shows that will take you through the entire nine-part, ten-hour Deep Space Nine finale with the seventh episode in the story, "Extreme Measures.

    Ethics and The Plan Perspectives: Two Sides, One Federation The Reality of the Mind Miles, Jules, and the Importance of Others Final Thoughts Closing Religion held a rare position of importance within Star Trek during the seven seasons of Deep Space Nine, and right from the outset Benjamin Sisko was ushered into the world of Bajoran spirituality.

    Rather than the contentious atmosphere of Kai Winn, however, Sisko was introduced to his role of Emissary by the kinder, gentler hand of Kai Opaka. And while we never truly got to know her, the role that Opaka played in setting up the series is irreplaceable—at least for the DS9 that we came to know.

    In this episode of The Orb, Christopher Jones and Matthew Rushing discuss Opaka, her background and her rise to the position of Kai, her "collaboration" with Cardassians during the final years of the Occupation, and we image a series both with Kai Opaka throughout and with her never existing. What happens when your reach the end of a season, need another episode, have little money, and dust of a thrice-rejected script? Nothing good, that's for sure. For all the wonderful writing in the sixth-season of Deep Space Nine, not all rises up to the standards of the show. The antepenultimate installment of Season Six is a story about an eight-year-old Molly O'Brien falling through a time portal and returning—almost instantly—at age eighteen.

    Considered by many to be the worst episode of DS9, the story was doomed from the beginning and salvaged only by the last-minute addition of a B-Story involving Worf and Jadzia. But could this have been a great episode? Are there ways to take the basic premise and turn it into something more fitting of Deep Space Nine? In this episode of The Orb hosts Christopher Jones and Matthew Rushing rewrite "Time's Orphan" to make it better serve the characters and arc of the series. At its core the story attempts to address the struggle of feral children and the trauma they experience, the anguish of parents who can't help the child they love so dearly, and provides a glimpse of what could have been for might-be parents.

    It all sounds like DS9, yet it didn't come together on screen. So how do we make it work? Listen on and find out. In each episode of The Orb we delve into the minutiae of Deep Space Nine, which generates a lot of feedback for you, our loyal listeners. Join us as we expand upon the Breen attack on Earth, Section 31 and how long they had been working on the morphogenic virus, whether it would have been better for the audience to meet Ezri Tigan a season before she became Dax, and the true nature of the Prophets.

    After "When It Rains…" resolved parts of DS9's Final Chapter and set new ones in motion, the second half of the overall story kicks off with what may be the longest cold open in all of Star Trek. There is no "previously on Deep Space Nine," no explanation of why you are seeing an examination of a Jem'Hadar ship; and you won't see any credits for more than eight minutes.

    The title is a perfect description of what takes place over the course of the episode. Like a ship making constant course corrections on the open sea, our characters must adjust to the rapidly changing circumstances around them. In this episode of The Orb hosts Christopher Jones and Matthew Rushing continue our series of shows that will take you through the entire nine-part, ten-hour Deep Space Nine finale with the sixth episode in the story, "Tacking Into the Wind.

    Deep Space Nine is first and foremost a story about characters. More so than any other Star Trek series, technology, science, and other worlds take a backseat to how events affect our characters on a personal level. So one easily overlooked part of the DS9 framework is the enormous solar system in which the series is set. Oh, and of course we get our plasma charged in the Denorios Belt. From the very moment Worf and Jadzia met in Quark's, it was clear that there was a spark between them. Dax's history with Klingon culture made her a natural for a potential relationship with the new arrival, but that alone can only go so far.

    Moore to revive a plotline he had tried to develop on TNG—the marriage of Worf. On The Next Generation the plan was for him to end up with Troi, but the relationship felt forced and didn't sit well with fans. The relationship between Worf and Jadzia, on the other hand, felt completely authentic and grew naturally over time. So when the Federation finally retook DS9 after the opening arc of the show's sixth season, it was time for a party.

    And what better way to party than to celebrate a wedding between friends and crewmates? We also play with fire, crash a Klingon bachelor party, drool over a baked potato, and learn the latest dance craze, the Bolian Chest Bump. From the very start, the Bajoran religion played a key role in the story of Deep Space Nine.

    As the story grew more complex in the final seasons, the influence of the Prophets got some competition from their evil counterparts, the Pah-wraiths.

    Invasion of the Orb Men

    With the show's shift deeper into mythology, these two sides were critical to the endgame of the Fire Caves. At the same time, two power-hungry leaders—Gul Dukat and Kai Winn—turned to a dangerous book not opened for more than seven hundred years. This tome—The Book of the Kosst Amojan—was the key to releasing the Pah-wraiths, and act with serious consquences for the Bajoran people and their Emissary.

    Despite its importance to many series threads, relatively little is known about the Cult of the Pah-wraiths and the Kosst Amojan. We discuss what we know, how it mirrors our own mythologies and religions, as well as why some Bajorans may have turned to the Dark Side. The first four parts of Deep Space Nine's final arc established many threads and challenges the many players both on the Station and beyond. In this episode of The Orb hosts Christopher Jones and Matthew Rushing continue our series of shows that will take you through the entire nine-part, ten-hour Deep Space Nine finale with the fifth episode in the story, "When It Rains…" We discuss Kira's twist of fate, Odo's plight and Starfleet's role in genocide, Garak's return home, and why Gowron is like your crazy uncle at the family reunion.

    Choosing the actors who will bring new characters to life is one of the many creative challenges in launching a new Star Trek series. The process itself can change the nature of the roles, resulting in adjustments to name, the background story of a given character, and their relationship with others. In this episode of The Orb we bring you the second part of our two-part conversation with Larry Nemecek about the casting of Deep Space Nine and the evolution of the characters.

    One of the many creative challenges in launching a new Star Trek series is casting. Finding the right actors to bring the characters to life takes time and careful consideration. And the process itself can change the nature of the roles, resulting in adjustments to name, ethnicity, background story, and in some cases requiring a completely new character to be created. In this episode of The Orb we're joined by Larry Nemecek for the first part of a two-part discussion about the casting of Deep Space Nine and the evolution of the characters.

    Throughout Deep Space Nine we see Cardassian government and society threatened by several different incarnations of resistance. From early dissidents such as Amin Marritza to later leaders like Tekeny Ghemor and Damar, something running deep inside Cardassians seems to cause dissident movements to continually spring up. In this episode of The Orb we discuss the unique elements of Cardassian society that lead to rebellion. Is it a feature of Cardassian politics or something buried deeper within their psyche? What are some of the characteristics and motivations of the leaders of these movements?

    How do their actions affect the broader world of DS9? It's a look at the repetitive epic so cherished by Cardassia. The first three parts of Deep Space Nine 's final chapter set up key plotlines that set the Dominion War's resolution in motion. It also set our characters on courses that would eventually lead them down separate paths.

    In the final piece of the initial four-episode block, the Dominion turns to The Breen Factor to break a stalemate in the war while the chasm between Cardassia and the Dominion widens—turning Damar into an unlikely object of viewer admiration. Initial plotlines are wrapped up while new threads are laid out. In this episode of The Orb hosts Christopher Jones and Matthew Rushing continue our series of shows that will take you through the entire nine-part, ten-hour Deep Space Nine finale with the fourth episode in the story, "The Changing Face of Evil.

    Let's be honest. Ferengi episodes are not amongst the fan favorites—even for die-hard Niners. But even in the midst of ludicrous social customs and the grating laugh of Grand Nagus Zek, the writers found a wonderful vehicle for discussion of women's rights in the character of Ishka. She's better known simply as "Moogie," mother of Quark and Rom, and she threw the lives of her children and everyone on Ferenginar into chaos by… wait for it… earning profit. In this episode of The Orb hosts Christopher Jones and Matthew Rushing take a close look at the woman behind the curtain, the woman with the lobes for business.

    We discuss how her presence on the show adds depth to Quark and Rom, what her relationship with Zek says about the evolution of societies, and how DS9 was able to deliver comedy with meaning. It's been five years since the reimagined J. Abrams Star Trek landed on the big screen. In that time we've only gotten two movies, but the alternate timeline has expanded greatly off-screen through IDW's Star Trek Ongoing comics.

    Kirk on quest that will see the Enterprise joining forces with familiar faces from Star Trek lore, beginning with the crew of "a certain space station…" Could this mean DS9? And if so, how would that work? How would the storylines change? How big would the station be? Who would play Captain Sisko?

    And what does Mall of America have to do with it? Join us for this debate that spans eras, timelines, and every part of the Star Trek franchise. Miles O'Brien was always a likeable character even when he did little more than man a transporter room on the Enterprise-D. But when the Chief came over to DS9 he took center stage and Starfleet's everyman—and the brilliant acting talents of Colm Meaney—really began to shine.

    In this episode of The Orb hosts Christopher Jones and Matthew Rushing pick some of their favorite episodes featuring the man who is second only to Michael Dorn for most appearances in Star Trek episodes. Find out if you agree with our picks or if there are other Miles Moments that top your own list. With the outcome of the war uncertain, The Dominion turned to an unlikely ally in the Breen—a move that set into motion a series of events that would turn out to be their undoing. One such event was the changing face of Damar, whose growing disillusion with the Dominion comes to a breaking point.

    In this episode of The Orb hosts Christopher Jones and Matthew Rushing continue our series of shows that will take you through the entire nine-part, ten-hour Deep Space Nine finale with the third episode in the story, "Strange Bedfellows. We also discuss three scenes from the script that didn't make it into the episode, two of which were never even shot.

    Breaking the stereotype that children of Starfleet officers long to enter the Academy themselves, Jake really was just an average child. Star Trek has never really done well with its younger characters. How do you tell stories about children and family on a show about space exploration, diplomacy, and starship battles? At first glance, the gritty nature of the former Terok Nor doesn't seem like a hopeful place to change that. As it turns out, it was just the right setting.

    In this episode of The Orb hosts Christopher Jones and Matthew Rushing take a close look at one of DS9's most forgotten and least popular characters to find out why he was critical to making Benjamin Sisko the man and leader he was, how he had a positive impact on Nog and others around him, and why the show would be very different if you removed the Jake. From the moment he first encountered Garak, Julian Bashir had a fascination with the mysterious Cardassian.

    But why? Could it have been a secret fascination with James Bond and the spy games of s Earth? Moore and Bob Gillan brought us a delightful holodeck story with life or death stakes for the station's crew. And like almost all DS9 episodes, the laughs were mixed with some meaningful character development—especially between the resident doctor and tailor.

    In this episode of The Orb hosts Christopher Jones and Matthew Rushing bring you a commentary for "Our Man Bashir" and explore the background behind the episode, what it says about Jules, the brilliance of Avery Brooks, and why everyone wants a honey bear. When the 30th Anniversary of Star Trek rolled around in , Deep Space Nine chose to pay homage to The Original Series with an ambitious episode that would push the computer technology of the time to the limit. In this episode of The Orb we join forces with the hosts of Trek.

    We pick our favorite moments, debate the hot topics it raises those are Klingons?! But can you blame us? After all, she lived in that time. If Sisko had his way, the story of Deep Space Nine would have ended with a happy wedding. But the Prophets had different plans for Ben.

    So did Dukat. And Winn. And the Pah Wraiths. The list goes on. But in short, the story of the Emissary was not going to come to a peaceful conclusion. We also examine the battle between the Pah Wraith's and Prophets, Dukat's surprising concern for Damar, and why no one needs to see old villain love. The concept of a joined species is an interesting and mysterious one. Two separate beings—each with their own will and identity—come together to form one.

    If it were a once-in-a-lifetime event for both, the union might be easy to define. But in the case of Trill, one half of this merging gets to do it over and over again—which raises the question of culpability. Can a current host be held responsible for the actions of a previous host?