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Charles succeeded in purchasing Brandenburg from Margrave Otto for , guilders in and, at a Landtag in Guben, he attached but not incorporated Brandenburg to the Crown of Bohemia. The Landbuch "land book", i. The power of the Luxembourgs in Brandenburg declined during the reign of Charles's nephew Jobst of Moravia.
"grevinde" English translation
The Neumark region was pawned to the Teutonic Knights , who neglected the border region. Under the Wittelsbach and Luxembourg Margraves, Brandenburg fell increasingly under the control of the local nobility as central authority declined. Rebellious landed nobility such as the Quitzow family opposed his appointment, but Frederick overpowered these Knights with artillery. Frederick's formal investiture with the Kurmark, or electoral march, and his appointment as Archchamberlain of the Holy Roman Empire occurred on 18 April , also during the Council of Constance.
Frederick made Berlin his residence, although he retired to his Franconian possessions in He granted governance of Brandenburg to his eldest son John, Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach, while retaining the electoral dignity for himself.
Translations of “countess”
Years of warfare with the Duchy of Pomerania were ended by a series of Treaties of Prenzlau , , and Brandenburg accepted the Protestant Reformation in The Hohenzollerns of Brandenburg sought to expand their power base from their relatively meager possessions, although this brought them into conflict with neighboring states. His eldest niece, Anna, Duchess of Prussia, was the wife of John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg, who promptly claimed the inheritance and sent troops to take hold of some of John William's holdings in the Rhineland.
At the end of the war in , Brandenburg was recognized as the possessor of approximately half the inheritance, comprising the Duchy of Cleves in the Rhineland and the Counties of Mark and Ravensberg in Westphalia. These territories, which were more than kilometers from the borders of Brandenburg, formed the nucleus of the later Prussian Rhineland. In this way, the fortuitous marriage of John Sigismund to Anna of Prussia, and the deaths of her maternal uncle in and her father in without immediate male heirs, proved to be the key events by which Brandenburg acquired territory both in the Rhineland and on the Baltic coast.
Prussia lay outside the Holy Roman Empire and the electors of Brandenburg held it as a fief of the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth, to which the electors paid homage. The electors of Brandenburg spent the next two centuries attempting to gain lands to unite their separate territories the Mark Brandenburg, the territories in the Rhineland and Westphalia, and Ducal Prussia to form one geographically contiguous domain.
Virgin Islands. The electors succeeded in acquiring full sovereignty over Prussia in the Treaty of Bromberg in Prussia, unlike Brandenburg, lay outside the Holy Roman Empire, within which only the emperor and the ruler of Bohemia could call themselves king. As king was a more prestigious title than prince-elector , the territories of the Hohenzollerns became known as the Kingdom of Prussia, although their power base remained in Brandenburg. Legally, Brandenburg was still part of the Holy Roman Empire, ruled by the Hohenzollerns in personal union with the Prussian kingdom over which they were fully sovereign.
For this reason, the Hohenzollerns continued to use the additional title of Elector of Brandenburg for the remainder of the empire's run. However, by this time the emperor's authority over the empire had become merely nominal. The various territories of the empire acted more or less as de facto sovereign states, and only acknowledged the emperor's overlordship over them in a formal way.
Thus, Brandenburg ame to be treated as de facto part of the Prussian kingdom rather than a separate entity. From to , Brandenburg's history was largely that of the state of Prussia, which established itself as a major power in Europe during the 18th century.
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The feudal designation of the Margraviate of Brandenburg ended with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in , which made the Hohenzollerns de jure as well as de facto sovereigns over it. It was replaced with the Province of Brandenburg in following the Napoleonic Wars. The Prussian kings, however, continued to use the title "Margrave of Brandenburg" in their formal style. Brandenburg, along with the rest of Prussia, became part of the German Empire in during the Prussian-led unification of Germany. During the Gleichschaltung of provinces by Nazi Germany during the s, the Province of Brandenburg and the Free State of Prussia lost all practical relevancy.
The region was administered as the Mark Brandenburg. Territory east of the Oder—Neisse line the Neumark region was placed under Polish administration became part Poland as her boundaries were agreed by the international powers in at the Yalta Conference and separated from Germany. Most of its German-speaking population was expelled and replaced with Poles. Brandenburg west of the Oder—Neisse line lay in the Soviet occupation zone; it became part of the German Democratic Republic.
This division of Brandenburg continued until the German reunification in The th anniversary of the foundation of the Mark of Brandenburg was to be celebrated officially on 11 June , with preliminary celebrations having begun at the Knights' Academy of Brandenburg an der Havel on 23 June From Grevinde af Markland.
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Return to Book Page. Preview — Grevinde by Hermann Heiberg. Grevinde by Hermann Heiberg. Diese waren zu einem Grossteil vergriffen oder nur noch antiquarisch erhaltlich. Sie tragt so dazu bei, dass viele tausend Werke nicht in Vergessenheit geraten Get A Copy. Paperback , pages. More Details Original Title. Other Editions 5.